Professor, Department of Pashto,
Faculty of Languages and Literatures, Paktia University, Afghanisthan,
While Bactrian and Persic languages differ in terms of knowledge based on historical, geographical, and comparative-historical linguistics, Pamir languages occupy a prominent position among Bactrian languages. Pamir languages are known to have originated in the mountainous region of Aryan land. Since then, these languages have prospered in this area and come to maintain their stronghold in Pamir and its immediate vicinity. In terms of linguistic relationship and intercourse, the gathering of all Pamir languages in a single group is one expression. It is still unclear if all the Pamir languages originated from an ancient source and then branched out into different groups or were left untouched by the Aryan languages, with each one maintaining its stability as a separate branch. Margin Stern, a specialist in Pamir languages do not consider one center of origin for Pamir languages: He says, “Finding a single phonologic system for all Pamir languages is impossible since they have similarities only in a few phonetics characters”. Despite these similarities, sometimes they are separated and stacked with other languages such as Pashtu. Here, it is noteworthy to mention that it has been a long time since Mr. Margin Stern gave this idea and as such, this is not a recent theory. During those times, fewer studies on Pamir languages were carried out, and that too with poor materials. For instance, the Yazgolyami language was almost not investigated while phonological borders among Pamir languages were not identified and the specifically voiced items were not even differentiated. The later linguists and researchers collected many items and consequently, voice borders were selected. Such profound and in-depth studies and classification assure the researchers that these languages originated from one tree and later developed into different branches.
Keywords: Pashtu, Pamir, Language